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2019. 11. 19 14:56 | 57 |

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Ecology - Grace Jeong (9SRO) - -Antarctica-

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Contents 1.Terms of Ecology 2.Ecosystem 3.Communities 4.Organisms 5.Populations 6.Habitat 7.Environment The ecosystem I chose:)

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1. Terms of Ecology

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4. Organisms in Antarctica Penguin Seal Plant(Lichen) Krills

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4. Organisms in Antarctica Penguin How are penguins adapted so they can swim fast? Penguins have webbed feet for powerful swimming. Their bodies are streamlined to reduce drag in water. Their wings, shaped like flippers, also help them "fly" underwater at speeds up to 15 mph. How do penguins keep warm? Penguins have to keep high body temperatures to remain active. They have thick skin and lots of fat (blubber) under their skin to keep warm in cold weather. They also huddle together with their friends to keep warm. What is the job of penguins feathers? Penguins tightly packed feathers overlap to provide waterproofing and warmth. They coat their feathers with oil from a gland near the tail to increase impermeability. Waterproofing is critical to penguins' survival in water, Antarctic seas may be as cold as -2.2°C and rarely get above +2°C. How do penguins stay under water? Penguins don't have all the extra airspaces in their bones that normal birds have. Their heavy, solid bones act like a diver's weight belt, allowing them to stay underwater.

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Seal 4. Organisms in Antarctica Eye Adaptations Seals have large eyes with a spherical lens to see underwater where light is scarce. To withstand the harsh rays of the sun reflecting off of the water and ice, seals in Antarctica developed a mobile pupil as well as a special membrane that covers their eyes when swimming underwater. Hunting and Eating Hunting in Antarctica requires speed and agility. Seals are agile swimmers underwater, thanks to their muscular fore and hind flippers that propel them through water. Seals adapted to eating in Antarctica by developing two special types of teeth. One type, their molars, evolved to be cusp-shaped to easily filter krill, a type of small crustacean found at the bottom of the food chain. Additionally, seals' teeth are very sharp to catch and cut up fish.

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Seal 4. Organisms in Antarctica Diving and Swimming Seals in Antarctica adapted the ability to hold their breath underwater for approximately 15 minutes. Enabling them to stay underwater for long periods of time. Seals also use their whiskers when swimming to search for prey. While diving in search of food, seals are able to blow bubbles up under broken ice to scare out fish. Body Temperature Regulation Seals regulate their body temperature in several ways. When cold, seals rely on their thick layer of blubber&cma or fat&cma to keep their organs insulated. Damaged skin loses heat quickly&cma and adult seals easily damage their skin from constantly swimming and crossing over ice. Since their skin is an important asset in staying warm&cma adult seals shed their skin every year and grow new skin to preve

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Plant (Lichen) 4. Organisms in Antarctica About Lichen A lichen is a plant formed from the symbiotic association of certain fungi and (usually) green algae. Three main types of lichens exist in Antarctica. Crustose lichens, which form a thin crust on the surface of the substrate they grow on; foliose lichens, which form leaf like lobes; and fruticose lichens which have a shrubby growth habit. Lichens can be found growing in most areas of the Antarctic capable of supporting plant life. Adaptation of Lichen in Antarctica Lichens have a number of adaptations that enable them to survive in Antarctica. They are able to exhibit net photosynthesis while frozen at temperatures as low as -20°C. They can absorb water from a saturated atmosphere when covered by snow. Additionally, snow cover affords protection from the elements and most growth appears to occur when they are buried beneath at least a thin protective layer of snow. They can survive long unfavourable periods of drought in a dry and inactive state. In continental Antarctica, many lichens are able to absorb water vapour from snow and ice.

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Krill 4. Organisms in Antarctica Anatomical Adaptations Very fine filtering net or "basket" formed by 6-8 pairs of limbs that can capture phytoplankton down to 1 micrometer, the smallest that there are, no other zooplankton of this size can do this. Behavioural Adaptations In the winter and spring they are found beneath sea ice where they feed on algae growing on the under side of the ice which they rake off in a methodical manner like a lawn mower. Physiological Adaptations Can withstand long periods of starvation (up to 200 days) by using their muscle as a reserve, the krill shrink in the process, this happens over the winter months when the krill are under seasonal sea ice and there is little or no photosynthesis . And female Antarctic krill can lay up to 10,000 eggs at a time, they can do this several times in a season.

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THANK YOU - by grace - Ecology-Antarctica

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Category Presentation
Recent edit date 2019. 11. 21 06:17
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No. of pages 10pages
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